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Title: Deontic Logic Reductionism Redux

Speaker: Davide Grossi

Reductionist approaches to deontic logic, started with the work of Kanger and Anderson, aim at reducing the logic of “ought-to-be” statements to other “non-deontic” modal logics. Although the issue of the relation between deontic statements and non-deontic ones that carry the same meaning is a deep one (see for instance the is-ought problem in the theory of norms) the reductionist tradition in Deontic Logic has never really been highly regarded in the literature. In this talk I aim at shedding novel light on such tradition, linking it to other rich topics in modern Deontic Logic and the theory of norms.

Title: About Some Multivalued Deontic Logics

Speaker: Piotr Kulicki

Prima facie duties have been introduced by W.D. Ross to refer to many different features of a human action that in a concrete situation make the action obligatory or forbidden. It may happen that some of the features point out an obligation to carry out the action, while some other witness against it. Thus, different prima facie duties may be in conflict, and if they are, the agent has to build up from them the so called all-things-considered duty, that is the most adequate one for the situation.

In this paper we preset a deontic machine, a Prolog algorithm, that was designed to reason about prima facie duties. An agent can ask the machine whether his or her individual act is good, bad or neutral, providing he or she first classifies the act by using the features of the act that apply to it in given situation and expresses his or her preferences for the norm sources.

The deontic machine takes advantage of three multivalued deontic logics. The paper presents their lattices and matrices and discusses their role in formalizing the relation between prima facie and all-things-considered duties.

Title: Deontic Action Logic Based on Supercover Semantics

Speaker: Karl Nygren

I propose a semantics for deontic action logic where action expressions are interpreted as sets of alternative actions, intended as a way to model choice situations. This construction results in a non-classical logical behavior of action expressions, while propositional statements behave classically. A deontic structure based on Mandy Simons’ supercover semantics is used to interpret permissions and obligations. I will argue that this construction avoids various problems related to the interaction of disjunction with deontic modalities, for example the problems of free choice permission. I will also discuss some properties of an axiomatization of the semantics.

Title: Deontic logic and quantum cryptography for access control

Speaker: Xin Sun

We study the complexity of deontic logics grounded on norm-based semantics and apply norm-based deontic logic to access control. Norm-based deontic logic helps us answer the question ``whether an agent is permitted to access to certain resource''. Then we use quantum cryptography to answer the question ``how to permit/prohibit an agent to access to certain resource.''

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